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对美国陪审制度的探析

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2013-09-04编辑:holy980点击率:7084

论文字数:论文编号:org201309032020114671语种:英语 English地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:法律制度陪审制度法律制度分析

摘要:陪审制度是公民直接参与司法活动的民主形式和公民权利的保障机制,是世界上最古老的司法制度之一。目前世界中存在两种主要模式,大陆法系参审制与英美法系陪审制。

陪审制度是指国家审判机关吸收非法律职业者参加法庭审判,与职业法官共同行使审判权的司法民主制度。 从世界范围来看,陪审制度主要存在两种形式:英美法系的陪审团制和大陆法系的参审制。


Jury system refers to the state judicial absorb non-legal professionals to participate in court proceedings, together with professional judges exercise judicial judicial democracy. From a global perspective, there are two main forms of the jury system: common law jury system and the civil law in judging cases. Our current jury system from the nature of the people in terms of belonging to the latter, although the U.S. jury system are referred to as "the jury system," but in the history of Evolution, composition, procedures and other aspects of the operation but there is a world of difference.


1.美国陪审制度的历史衍变。陪审制度历来是英美法系的一大特色。虽然现代陪审制度究竟肇始何处,在西方学界却始终是“一个悬而未决的难题”,但一般人认为,现代意义的陪审制度始于英国。


First,Historical Development of American jury system . Anglo-American jury system has always been a major feature of law . Although the onset of the modern jury system exactly where in the Western scholars have always been " an unresolved problem" , but most people believe that the jury system in the modern sense began in the United Kingdom. Early 17th century , the British colonies in North America , British immigrants to settle in North America, the jury system into the colonial judicial system, the colony 's development, so rooted in the U.S. jury system began . 1606 King in order to protect the rights of the British colonists domiciled decree requires Virginia colonial government in the colonial government or the Commission has not been a trial , you must provide for criminal suspects jury trial services. Subsequently, the 1606 Virginia Charter is considered to be the originator of the jury system in the United States .


1635年,弗吉尼亚建立了大陪审团制度。主要负责刑事案件的指控与犯罪调查,并最终决定是否将案件移送法院。1641年《马萨诸塞自由纲领》中规定,民事案件当事人可以和刑事案件当事人一样选择法官审判或陪审团审判。


1635 , Virginia established the grand jury system . Primarily responsible for the allegations of criminal cases and crime investigation and ultimately decide whether to refer the case to court . 1641 " Massachusetts Freedom Agenda " in the provisions , civil and criminal cases the parties may choose the parties as a judge or jury trial. After the victory of the War of Independence , the judge and the jury began to separate the functions of the jury is primarily responsible for part of the facts of the case ruled that the judge responsible for legal issues applicable sections . At this point, the jury system on the mode of operation and scope of basic finalized, although the specific operation of the colonies vary . After the 20th century , the American jury system mainly carried out on the following three areas of reform : first, the jury selection issue .


 Women and blacks can become members of the jury , and in some cases involving black crime also specifically requires the participation of black jurors . Meanwhile, traditionally important professionals and provide a valuable service to the community of other people , can be exempted from jury to fulfill its obligations. Again, the jury verdict matter of principle. The traditional jury verdict must be consistent to be effective . Majoritarian principle is also now beginning to be used in the 12 -person jury in order to 10:2 or 9:3 is considered to be effective through th论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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