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Chapter One Class Ostracization by the ConservativeSouthern Blacks

1.1 Repulsion by the Southern Orthodoxy Religion

There are three dimensions of racial uplift in the struggle against racism, includingmoral uplift, intellectual uplift, andphysical uplift.Moral uplift meansgrowthin ethicalsophistication, spiritual and religious consciousness. Intellectual uplift includes formaland informal education and the improvement of cultural literacy. And physical upliftrelates to “improving clothing, health condition, and social conduct, qualities thatsupposedly stabilized interior psyche, emotions, and spirit” (Jarrett 54). As a blackbarber who lives in a cottage of the white family and works for the white barbershops,Joe makes an unremitting endeavor to get physical uplift. According to hardworking,Joe and his family accumulate a large amount of money. He shows superiority upon theuneducated conservative blacks and tries to escape from his black identity. However,his racial uplift consciousness is regarded as an illegal transgression and is containedby the disciplined southern blacks.

From the seventeenth century to the Civil War, lots of blacks are suffering fromthe exploitation of the white society both physically and spiritually. They have to seekhelp fromaspiritual substancethat cankeepthemalive.Thus,theyresort toChristianityto get spiritual redemption. As Greenblatt asserts, “there never was any remarkablelawgiver amongst any people who did not resort to divine authority, as otherwise hislaws would not have been accepted by the people” (24). In the discussion of thepostbellum life, DuBoissuggeststhatblacksarenot truly liberateddespitethelanguageof the law; rather, they are statically incarcerated in a new slavery experience (qtd. InVega 222). The great irony is that the blacks get freedom as long as they get rid of theslave identity, however, they are unableto breakthe confinement of the white authority.The profound reason is that religion is also a kind of tool used by the authority toeducate people and to strengthen ideological power.


1.2 Ostracization by the Disciplined Black Subalterns

Jonathan Dollimore suggests that subversion is “produced from a multitude ofsources that vie with the dominant ideology for hegemony” (Dollimore 125).The racialuplift ideology performs as a subversive ideology and is offered as a form of culturalpolitics, in thehopethatunsympathetic whites would relentandrecognizethe humanityof middle-classAfricanAmericans, and their potential for pursuing the citizenship thatthe black men have possessed during Reconstruction. It reflects theAfricanAmerican’sdesire for social mobility and equal legal rights. For many middle-class AfricanAmericans, “uplift cameto meananemphasisonself-help,racialsolidarity, temperance,thrift, chastity, social purity, patriarchal authority, and the accumulation of wealth”(Gaines 2). In that era, the black elites’pursuing bourgeois qualifications for rights andcitizenship by claiming Negro improvement. However, in dealing with the relationshipwith the disciplined subalterns, the black elites are facing with the awkward situationthat the social and cultural forces deny their status when they r论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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